Research on Failure Repair and Maintenance of Diesel Generator
In the actual working process, diesel generators have high thermal efficiency, low fuel consumption, fast startup, reliable operation and durability, so they are widely used in electric power backup power. However, diesel generators also generate a lot of faults under high load operation. These faults make the diesel generators work less efficiently and interrupt work when they are severe. Therefore, related maintenance personnel need to strengthen the maintenance and diagnosis of diesel engine faults. , And strengthen the daily maintenance work, so as to ensure that the diesel engine set is in a normal working state. Basic Principles of Diesel Generator Sets Diesel generator sets are driven by a diesel engine to operate a motor to output electrical energy. In the actual running process, the diesel engine rotates to drive the rotor of the generator, and uses the principle of electromagnetic induction to make the generator generate the corresponding electromagnetic induction electromotive force, and then generate current through the closed loop to complete the power generation operation. 2 Structural analysis of diesel generator sets Generally, diesel generator sets are mainly composed of a diesel engine, a generator, and a control system. Among them, the diesel engine and the generator are connected to a common chassis after being connected, and then sensors and control systems are installed. To achieve the overall assembly of the entire unit. The sensor is mainly used to detect the working condition parameters of the unit, and the control system is mainly to protect the unit and display various electrical parameters to the operator. In addition, diesel generator sets also have chassis, couplings, radiators, fuel tanks, mufflers, covers, shock absorbers or rubber shock absorbers to evaluate and formulate treatment methods. 3.2 Damage repair ability Damage repair is the core link of emergency repair, and this ability mainly refers to whether the maintenance personnel can restore the equipment to a state capable of performing tasks or capable of performing certain tasks based on the results of the damage assessment. The performance of the auto maintenance unit in this capacity will be affected by the following factors: emergency handling capacity of silting. As the name implies, repairs are mostly carried out in emergency or even critical situations, and the specific repair results will directly affect the lives and safety of the relevant personnel. Therefore, the car maintenance unit must be able to respond quickly in emergency situations, depending on the different equipment. Maintenance plan for the damage situation. For the application of new materials and new technologies. The application of new materials and technologies can usually bring a qualitative improvement to the actual effectiveness of automobile maintenance. In the process of repairing, if the relevant maintenance personnel are not proficient in the operation of new technologies or the methods used in the application of new materials Inappropriate, such a situation may cause the maintenance effect to decrease, and the life of the equipment operator may be affected. In view of such problems, the application of new materials and technologies should be regarded as the key content in the actual training process. 3.3 Equipment maintenance capability The completion of emergency repairs depends on the provision of relevant maintenance equipment and equipment, that is, the equipment support capability. The following points will affect the performance of the auto maintenance unit in this capability: the ability to manage equipment. The management of equipment should be carried out from the two aspects of equipment intact rate and supporting rate, which is the basis to ensure that these equipment can play a maximum role in the actual repair process. For carrying capacity. During the repair process, it is likely to be applied to some larger and heavier equipment, and whether these equipment can be safely transported to the repair site will also directly affect the smooth development of the repair work. The ability to predict glenoid consumption. Many of the equipment and materials used in the repair process are consumables. If the maintenance personnel cannot make a reasonable estimate of the use of these materials, an overestimated amount will have an impact on the transportation efficiency of the equipment. Too little will affect the actual maintenance effectiveness. 3.4 Survival and defense capabilities As mentioned above, the environment may be various, and the ability of the auto maintenance unit to adapt to different environments and its own survival and defense capabilities will also have an impact on the development of emergency repairs. The performance of the auto maintenance unit in the survival and defense capabilities is mainly composed of defense and epidemic prevention capabilities and environmental adaptation capabilities. For the former, there are likely to be harmful gases and liquids to the human body. Maintenance personnel should be able to avoid the influence of these factors on themselves and maintenance work by certain means. The environmental adaptability mainly refers to the adaptability of maintenance team personnel to different natural and human environments. When the environment is different, the actual maintenance plan must be improved accordingly. 3.5 Organization and Command Capability Organization and command capability refers to the operational planning and decision-making, planning and organization, and coordination and control of commanders and command agencies, and this ability is the key to determining whether the overall emergency repair work can meet expectations. 3 Analysis of common faults and solutions 3.1 Analysis of common faults in the start-up part of the generator set One of the common faults in the generator set is the start-up part failure, which is mainly divided into two types: The first is a manual start-up failure, which is mainly manifested in The manual rope is damaged, specifically: the rope is broken, the rope is stuck, the rope tray is damaged, etc. . During the maintenance of this part of the fault, the maintenance personnel need to check the pull rope first, and then carry out specific maintenance according to the cause of the failure. The second type is the fault of the electric starting part. The fault of this part is more complicated than the manual fault. Its main manifestations have the following aspects: First, the battery fault. The battery can directly affect the startup state of the magnetic switch. Once the battery voltage is insufficient, it will directly affect the normal start of the generator set. Second, the magnetic switch problem. The closing of the magnetic switch is performed under energized conditions, and the battery is the key to energize. Once the battery voltage is not sufficient, it will cause the magnetic switch to attract. The magnetic switch may be damaged. Finally, the electromagnetic fuel valve is damaged. Malfunction, once the electromagnetic fuel valve has a problem, it will cause abnormal voltage. 3.2 Insufficient output power of the generator set There are many reasons for the insufficient output power of the generator set. The main reasons are as follows: First, the set power exceeds the rated power. If the generator set is in an overloaded state, the instruments on the control system will react to a certain extent, and the indications in the voltmeter and ammeter are outside the rated range. In this case, in order to ensure the normal operation of the generator set, Operators need to cut off unnecessary loads. Second, the fuel temperature is too high. The temperature of the fuel directly affects the torque output of the diesel engine. In general, the fuel temperature of diesel generators is set to not exceed 70% . Once this limit is exceeded, the heat capacity will be reduced, resulting in insufficient output power. Affects the normal operation of the fuel system. Therefore, the operator must control the fuel temperature. 4 Analysis of the use and maintenance of diesel generating sets 4.1 Equipment storage and maintenance of diesel generating sets It is most taboo to leave any mechanical equipment idle, because mechanical equipment is susceptible to rust during the idle process and has relatively rapid wear. Therefore, the maintenance department needs to strengthen the effective storage of diesel generator sets and ensure that the storage space is dry and dust-free, so as to greatly reduce the impact of dust and moisture on diesel generator sets. In addition, it is also necessary to strengthen the storage and management of diesel. As an important energy source for generator sets, once it contains impurities, it will affect the performance of combustion, so it must be ensured that it will not be polluted by other substances. 4.2 Regular maintenance Relevant departments need to perform regular maintenance and maintenance work on diesel generator sets in accordance with certain maintenance manuals. Parts that are damaged must be replaced in time, and parts that need to be repaired must be repaired in accordance with relevant regulations to ensure diesel The generator set can maintain the best condition. When maintaining the lubrication system of a diesel engine, the specific content is as follows: First, the first warranty does not require oil changes. Second, when changing the oil, the working environment should be as clean and tidy as possible, and do not operate in dusty weather and environments. Third, the oil replacement cycle in cold areas should be shortened accordingly. In areas where the temperature is below -20 ° C for at least 3 months in a year, the oil replacement cycle should be shortened appropriately. Fourth, under normal circumstances, the oil level is checked once a day during the break-in period and once a week after the break-in period. Fifth, a new oil filter element must be installed every time the oil is changed. Sixth, when the engine oil is changed, the waste oil released should be collected in a special container and should not be poured into the sewer to avoid polluting the environment. 5 Troubleshooting of diesel generator sets 5.1 Fault judgment and analysis Relevant maintenance personnel need to accurately judge and analyze the faults of diesel generator sets. This is because the early analysis and judgment directly affect the maintenance effect of the generator set and the choice of later maintenance methods. Therefore, the maintenance personnel must ensure the accuracy of the diagnosis results . 5.2 Contrast fault types In a sense, fault types directly affect the development of maintenance work. Therefore, relevant departments need to classify and summarize the faults that occur in diesel generator sets and edit them into a book to help maintenance personnel quickly diagnose and repair faults. 5.3 Qualitative Treatment of Failures The maintenance department needs to conduct qualitative treatment of the failures of diesel generator sets, so as to ensure that there will be no errors or errors in the maintenance work. Therefore, the maintenance personnel are required to take the truth and rigorous work attitude seriously during the actual work, and take the troubleshooting work seriously, and perform troubleshooting and repair according to the type of failure, so as to improve the work efficiency and maintenance quality. 5.4 Analysis of specific cases First, the phenomenon of failure: During the actual operation of the diesel engine, the phenomenon of "jet oil" appeared. After cleaning the oil pan and cylinder body and preparing for it, the relevant personnel conducted a segmented experiment to check the specific oil leakage location. During the test, it was found that the lower exhaust oil dripped heavily; the lower exhaust was not large and the exhaust pipe was smokey. Normal; no abnormal valve cover. Second, failure cause analysis: There is a certain piston ring blow-by phenomenon during the operation of the diesel engine, and the oil and gas separator separates the oil and gas blow-by from the crankcase, and sucks the separated gas into the combustion chamber for combustion. Blocking phenomenon, the pressure in the crankcase is too high, the oil of the oil pan will enter the oil-gas separator through the pipeline and the oil return port, and spray out from the air outlet. Third, the solution: the operator needs to refer to the equipment operator's manual to regularly check the diesel engine's hydraulic components, hydraulic lines and front-end working devices. If the machine is operated for a long time, such as working 24 hours a day, it needs to be more frequent To check. Before the inspection, the inspection points need to be cleaned to remove impurities such as mud on the hydraulic components and pipelines. Once there is a leak in the pipeline or the Zhuang ring, the operator needs to contact the dealer service personnel as soon as possible to replace the order. 6 Conclusion In summary, as an important power system equipment, the safe, stable and efficient operation of diesel generators is the focus of attention. Therefore, relevant maintenance personnel need to strengthen their failure research and analysis of maintenance measures, and pay attention to their maintenance, so as to promote the safe, stable and efficient operation of diesel generators.